1. Explain the following terms:
(a)justification by faith: In the Catholic religion only managed to go to Heaven for acts while in the Protestant religion with faith, you went to heaven.______________________________________
(b) indulgences: They were written in the pope absolved you of any sin.___________________________________________
(c) Papal bull: Delivered and is a law created by the Pope.____________________________________________
(d) excommunicated: The excommunication was an act that by the pope against a person, the escomunionhacia that nobody had to take notice.______________________________________
(e) heretic: ________They were people who did not perform the commandments of God.______________________________________
(f) clerical celibacy: It consisted of one of the key standards to be a priest who was unable to perform carnal acts.__________________________
2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther.
1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned? Resolutions passed at meetings
Sessions I and II: Held on December 13, 1545 and January 7, 1546 respectively. Preliminary issues and order of the council.
III: Held on February 4, 1546. It reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.
IV: Held on April 8, 1546. Acceptance of the sacred books and traditions of the Apostles. They declared Tradition and Sacred Scripture as the two sources of revelation. The Vulgate translation is considered accepted in the Bible.
V: Held on June 17, 1546. Decree on Original Sin.
VI: Held on January 13, 1547. Decree of Justification in 16 chapters (reaffirmed the value of faith along with good works). Canons on justification. This was the most important session of the first period.
VII: Held on March 3, 1547. Canons on the Sacraments in general. Canons on the Sacrament of Baptism. Canons on the Sacrament of Confirmation. Reform of pluralities, exemptions and legal affairs of the clergy.
VIII: Held on March 11, 1547. The transfer to Bologna to escape the plague.
IX: Held on April 21, 1547 in Bologna. Extension of the session.
X: Held on June 2, 1547 in Bologna. Extension of the session.
Suspension of the council by the pope.
XI: Held on May 1, 1551. Continuation of the council.
XII: Held on September 1, 1551. Extension.
XIII: Held on October 11, 1551. Decree and canons on the sacrament of the Eucharist. Reform of the episcopal jurisdiction and supervision of the bishops.
XIV: Held on November 25, 1551. Doctrine and canons on the sacrament of penance and extreme unction.
XV: Held on January 25, 1552. No decisions are made.
XVI: Held on April 28, 1552.
Suspension agreement of the council.
XVII: Held on January 18, 1562. Reopening of the council.
XVIII: Held on February 26, 1562. Need a list of banned books.
XIX: Held on May 14, 1562. Extension.
XX: Held on June 4, 1562. Extension.
Century: Held on July 16, 1562. Doctrine and charges on the communion under both species and the communion of infants. Management reform, the priesthood and the founding of new parishes.
XXII: Held on September 17, 1562. Doctrine on the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The Eucharist is dogmatically defined as a real atonement in which the bread and wine are transformed into real flesh and blood of Christ. Moral reform of the clergy, the administration of religious foundations and requirements to assume ecclesiastical offices.
XXIII: Held on July 15, 1563. Doctrine and canons on the sacrament of holy orders (ordination). Hierarchy. Residence requirement. Regulation of the Seminars.
XXIV: Held on November 11, 1563. Doctrine on the sacrament of marriage. It reaffirmed the excellence of celibacy. Reform of bishops and cardinals.
XXV: Held on 3 and December 4, 1563. Decree on Purgatory. They reaffirm the existence of purgatory and the veneration of saints and relics. Reform of the monastic orders. Deletion of concubinage in church. Pope was left to the task of preparing a list of banned books, the development of a catechism and the revision of the Breviary and Missal. Of the Trinity and Incarnation (against the unit). Tridentine profession of faith. Closure of the council.
2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.
3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country
where it was not.
(a) Successful in: Genoa__________________________________________________________
(b) Unsuccessful in: France________________________________________________________