lunes, 25 de enero de 2010

The sistem of regaty

The two traditional irrigation systems currently in place still come from the Muslim period, in addition to water pipes or ditches for the water flowing from rivers or springs, using the unevenness of the ground. The use of river water used the weirs or dams, and alquezares or cuts.

To take water from wells, springs, streams, or rivers were used various means: the pulley, the horizontal hand around the crank and wheel trucks.

From the tenth century are mushrooming all over the geography of al-Andalus the waterwheels driven by water power "Naura. were used for raising water, the management of textile mills and paper manufacturing.

In the vegetable gardens and orchards were also used forklift wheels called "dawlab" name of Persian origin. The term "Saniya" the treadmill was used for blood, already known by the Romans and also broadcast on al-Andalus by the Arabs. He claims it was the Syrians who brought it already in the thirteenth century. Ar-Razi tells of the Segura irrigation system, much like the Nile in Egypt.

To capture groundwater wells were used and, perhaps most known and relevant water pipes in the Arab world, the famous Qana that is basically in some underground tunnels, drilled by applying techniques of oriental origin, which is driven by well water from a mother who captures from the groundwater and is fitted with a vent or ventilation shafts each distance.

It is a technique known since ancient times in al-Andalus, introduced by the Umayyads, and abundant in many parts of Mallorca, Madrid and Alicante, where architects and experts were using the wizards (Arabic zuharï) to detect the location of the groundwater.

Making possible the use of wells to extract water from wells fuesustituir the water power for the beasts of burden, enabling operate the machine without the existence of water.

It was not easy to build the wheel and pinion mechanism to convert the horizontal movement in a vertical twist. The carpenters of al-Andalus two wheels built with wood of different hardness so that the weakest act as mechanical fuse and accidents could be easily replaced.

For the distribution of irrigation water was developed elaborate and extensive networks of irrigation ditches that successively subdivided into smaller pipes in a tree structure to reach each of the lots that watered and reach large areas of intensive irrigation.

If the recruitment was done in a stream, sometimes it was necessary to resort to the weir for diversion into the canal, ditch or wheel which was responsible for driving or pumping water.

Among agricultural techniques that expose the Andalusi agronomists should be noted that intended to ensure that water runs in a land to enable irrigation. The technique is to have the floor with a nod of agreement with a certain gap ratio, this ratio was calculated using a tool for that purpose.

The classification of water being made by Muslim writers is based on a criterion of source from which identifies four different groups: rain, rivers, wells and fountains, each with their properties and effects on crops. Over watering the fruit trees and plants in general should take into account a range of general and specific principles for each case.

The key to increasing the irrigated area was the best use of existing resources, and in this line, in areas where resources were scarce, the waters of the baths were then reused for irrigation. Such is the case of the baths in Alhama de Murcia, that by the middle of the thirteenth century served to irrigate the farm lands. Practice that has continued into the twentieth century.

Origenétnico As to the institutions of water distribution in irrigation systems, we note that the area of al-Andalus Xarq (Spanish southeast) also has Berber roots in some cases.

The Mosque

The Woman Islamic

* Obligations of the husband over his wife: it is compulsory that the man kept his wife and children, providing food, clothing and shelter is their protector and should give good treatment, Muhammad said:

The believer who has the most complete faith is he who behaves well and the best among you is the best treats his wife
Hadith transmitted by At-Tirmidhi (# 1162) who classified it as authentic

In the same way most scholars and between Ibn Hazm, saying that women are entitled to have relations with her husband at least once every period. [82]

* Duties of the wife about her husband, Muhammad said that the best comfort in this world is a pious woman, [83] therefore should always show respect and obedience than sin, admit you are not permitted entry into the house to someone who dislikes her husband, obey anyone against this and attend to his bed when it's needed. [84

jueves, 21 de enero de 2010

Vocabulary 3

Unit 3
1. Three year rotation: The three-year rotation were the way to the lands that were planted had all their nutrients, so when this land is harvested while the rest which previously rested plant.
2. Mouldboard plough:This served to plow lattierra found in the area come down and that was under this rise.
3. Hanseatic league: This league consisted of cun all northern European cities that traded with each other.
4. Trade fairs:Fairs that were usually were left in the Champagne region in France, where merchants sold all their products.
5. Bills of exchange: Bills of exchange were aqullas that were used as money is, in bills of exchange was worth the amount that letter, which was afterwards exchanged for money.
6. Ghettoes: The ghettos were neighborhoods where only Jews lived.
7. Moorish:The neighborhoods where they were Moriscos were Muslims in Christian cities.
8. City Council:This building was the town hall now called. Here were the highest authorities of the city.
9. Guilds:The guilds were all having the same local office.
10. Master Craftsmen: They were the owners of the store, taught the apprentices.
11. Journeymen: The officers were young people who knew lla make the trade.
12. Apprentices:The trainees were those who were to provide services to learn the job, they slept in the same place of work.
13. Roman Law : Roman law was the one in the middle ages took to create the Christian civilization.
14. Parliaments : Parliaments were a meeting that were the kings, clergy and nobles to address issues of cities and towns of the kingdom.