The two traditional irrigation systems currently in place still come from the Muslim period, in addition to water pipes or ditches for the water flowing from rivers or springs, using the unevenness of the ground. The use of river water used the weirs or dams, and alquezares or cuts.
To take water from wells, springs, streams, or rivers were used various means: the pulley, the horizontal hand around the crank and wheel trucks.
From the tenth century are mushrooming all over the geography of al-Andalus the waterwheels driven by water power "Naura. were used for raising water, the management of textile mills and paper manufacturing.
In the vegetable gardens and orchards were also used forklift wheels called "dawlab" name of Persian origin. The term "Saniya" the treadmill was used for blood, already known by the Romans and also broadcast on al-Andalus by the Arabs. He claims it was the Syrians who brought it already in the thirteenth century. Ar-Razi tells of the Segura irrigation system, much like the Nile in Egypt.
To capture groundwater wells were used and, perhaps most known and relevant water pipes in the Arab world, the famous Qana that is basically in some underground tunnels, drilled by applying techniques of oriental origin, which is driven by well water from a mother who captures from the groundwater and is fitted with a vent or ventilation shafts each distance.
It is a technique known since ancient times in al-Andalus, introduced by the Umayyads, and abundant in many parts of Mallorca, Madrid and Alicante, where architects and experts were using the wizards (Arabic zuharï) to detect the location of the groundwater.
Making possible the use of wells to extract water from wells fuesustituir the water power for the beasts of burden, enabling operate the machine without the existence of water.
It was not easy to build the wheel and pinion mechanism to convert the horizontal movement in a vertical twist. The carpenters of al-Andalus two wheels built with wood of different hardness so that the weakest act as mechanical fuse and accidents could be easily replaced.
For the distribution of irrigation water was developed elaborate and extensive networks of irrigation ditches that successively subdivided into smaller pipes in a tree structure to reach each of the lots that watered and reach large areas of intensive irrigation.
If the recruitment was done in a stream, sometimes it was necessary to resort to the weir for diversion into the canal, ditch or wheel which was responsible for driving or pumping water.
Among agricultural techniques that expose the Andalusi agronomists should be noted that intended to ensure that water runs in a land to enable irrigation. The technique is to have the floor with a nod of agreement with a certain gap ratio, this ratio was calculated using a tool for that purpose.
The classification of water being made by Muslim writers is based on a criterion of source from which identifies four different groups: rain, rivers, wells and fountains, each with their properties and effects on crops. Over watering the fruit trees and plants in general should take into account a range of general and specific principles for each case.
The key to increasing the irrigated area was the best use of existing resources, and in this line, in areas where resources were scarce, the waters of the baths were then reused for irrigation. Such is the case of the baths in Alhama de Murcia, that by the middle of the thirteenth century served to irrigate the farm lands. Practice that has continued into the twentieth century.
Origenétnico As to the institutions of water distribution in irrigation systems, we note that the area of al-Andalus Xarq (Spanish southeast) also has Berber roots in some cases.