jueves, 6 de mayo de 2010

La densidad de poblacion del mundo

Los países o territorios más densamente poblados del mundo usualmente también son bastante pequeños y, en algunos, casos, se trata de ciudades-Estado. Entre ellos se encuentran Macao (región administrativa especial de China), Singapur, Hong Kong (otra RAE china), el pequeño principado europeo de Mónaco y algunas islas de las Antillas Menores, como Barbados y San Vicente y las Granadinas. Por otro lado, entre las naciones con mayor población absoluta se destacan por su densidad Bangladesh, la India y Japón. En América Latina sobresalen Puerto Rico, El Salvador (la nación más densamente poblada del istmo centroamericano), Guatemala y Cuba.

En 1991 la Ciudad amurallada de Kowloon había alcanzado una población superior a los 50.000 habitantes, malviviendo en sus escasos 0,026 km², ostentando el triste récord de tener la mayor densidad de población del planeta con 1.900.000 habitantes por km².

WHICH ARE THE MOST DENSELY POPULATED COUNTRIES? Is all territory densely populated.

jueves, 15 de abril de 2010

Concilio de Trento

1. Explain the following terms:
(a)justification by faith: In the Catholic religion only managed to go to Heaven for acts while in the Protestant religion with faith, you went to heaven.______________________________________
(b) indulgences: They were written in the pope absolved you of any sin.___________________________________________
(c) Papal bull: Delivered and is a law created by the Pope.____________________________________________
(d) excommunicated: The excommunication was an act that by the pope against a person, the escomunionhacia that nobody had to take notice.______________________________________
(e) heretic: ________They were people who did not perform the commandments of God.______________________________________
(f) clerical celibacy: It consisted of one of the key standards to be a priest who was unable to perform carnal acts.__________________________

2. Write briefly four important landmarks in the life of Martin Luther.


1. Why was the Council of Trent summoned? Resolutions passed at meetings

Sessions I and II: Held on December 13, 1545 and January 7, 1546 respectively. Preliminary issues and order of the council.

III: Held on February 4, 1546. It reaffirmed the Nicene Creed.

IV: Held on April 8, 1546. Acceptance of the sacred books and traditions of the Apostles. They declared Tradition and Sacred Scripture as the two sources of revelation. The Vulgate translation is considered accepted in the Bible.

V: Held on June 17, 1546. Decree on Original Sin.

VI: Held on January 13, 1547. Decree of Justification in 16 chapters (reaffirmed the value of faith along with good works). Canons on justification. This was the most important session of the first period.

VII: Held on March 3, 1547. Canons on the Sacraments in general. Canons on the Sacrament of Baptism. Canons on the Sacrament of Confirmation. Reform of pluralities, exemptions and legal affairs of the clergy.

VIII: Held on March 11, 1547. The transfer to Bologna to escape the plague.

IX: Held on April 21, 1547 in Bologna. Extension of the session.

X: Held on June 2, 1547 in Bologna. Extension of the session.

Suspension of the council by the pope.

XI: Held on May 1, 1551. Continuation of the council.

XII: Held on September 1, 1551. Extension.

XIII: Held on October 11, 1551. Decree and canons on the sacrament of the Eucharist. Reform of the episcopal jurisdiction and supervision of the bishops.

XIV: Held on November 25, 1551. Doctrine and canons on the sacrament of penance and extreme unction.

XV: Held on January 25, 1552. No decisions are made.

XVI: Held on April 28, 1552.

Suspension agreement of the council.

XVII: Held on January 18, 1562. Reopening of the council.

XVIII: Held on February 26, 1562. Need a list of banned books.

XIX: Held on May 14, 1562. Extension.

XX: Held on June 4, 1562. Extension.

Century: Held on July 16, 1562. Doctrine and charges on the communion under both species and the communion of infants. Management reform, the priesthood and the founding of new parishes.

XXII: Held on September 17, 1562. Doctrine on the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The Eucharist is dogmatically defined as a real atonement in which the bread and wine are transformed into real flesh and blood of Christ. Moral reform of the clergy, the administration of religious foundations and requirements to assume ecclesiastical offices.

XXIII: Held on July 15, 1563. Doctrine and canons on the sacrament of holy orders (ordination). Hierarchy. Residence requirement. Regulation of the Seminars.

XXIV: Held on November 11, 1563. Doctrine on the sacrament of marriage. It reaffirmed the excellence of celibacy. Reform of bishops and cardinals.

XXV: Held on 3 and December 4, 1563. Decree on Purgatory. They reaffirm the existence of purgatory and the veneration of saints and relics. Reform of the monastic orders. Deletion of concubinage in church. Pope was left to the task of preparing a list of banned books, the development of a catechism and the revision of the Breviary and Missal. Of the Trinity and Incarnation (against the unit). Tridentine profession of faith. Closure of the council.

2. Identify three conclusions reached at this Council.

(a) ____________________________________________________________________

(b) ____________________________________________________________________

(c) ____________________________________________________________________

3. Name five countries in Europe where the Counter-Reformation was successful and one country

where it was not.

(a) Successful in: Genoa__________________________________________________________

(b) Unsuccessful in: France________________________________________________________

jueves, 25 de marzo de 2010

Statue Of David

Work:Statue of David
Type of work:Sculpture.

jueves, 4 de marzo de 2010

The Black Died


Most infections are caused by the bite of fleas from rodents (plague zoótica). Only rarely do other species of fleas can transmit the infection. The spread between people by fleas is very rare (cases have been reported in South American countries at funerals of people stinking).

Another type of infection can occur from bites or scratches from cats and other carnivores, by eating dead animals, by handling animal carcasses affected by the disease, or by inhalation of bacteria from the human pneumonic form (plague Dimic).

Where did the plague arrive from?:
If the plague had just stayed in one city, the containment might have spared Europe. Unfortunately, the plague spread when people fled to other cities.
It is believed the plague originated in Asia, and moved west with Mongol armies and traders.

"According to a traditional story, the plague came to Europe from the town of Caffa, a Crimean port on the Black Sea where Italian merchants from Genoa maintained a thriving trade center. The Crimea was inhabited by Tartars, a people of the steppe, a dry, treeless region of central Asia. When the plague struck the area in 1346, tens of thousands of Tartars died. Perhaps superstition caused the Muslim Tartars to blame their misfortune on the Christian Genoese. Or perhaps a Christian and Muslim had become involved in a street brawl in Caffa, and the Tartars wanted revenge. In any case, the Tartars sent an army to attack Caffa, where the Genoese had fortified themselves. As the Tartars laid siege to Caffa, plague struck their army and many died. The Tartars decided to share their suffering with the Genoese. They used huge catapults to lob the infected corpses of plague victims over the walls of Caffa. As the Tartars had intended, the rotting corpses littered the streets, and the plague quickly spread throughout the besieged city. The Genoese decided they must flee; they boarded their galleys and set sail for Italy, carrying rats, fleas, and the Black Death with them."

(Corzine, 1997) The plague traveled on trade routes and caravans. Its path of death was generally from south to north and east to west passing through Italy, France, England, Germany, Denmark,
Sweden, Poland, Finland, and eventually reaching Greenland.

Effort to stop the Plague:

jueves, 25 de febrero de 2010

The Trips Of Marco Polo

The first trip [edit]

In the Polos were other browsers besides Marco. His father Nicholas (or Niccolò in Venetian) and his Uncle Matthew (or Maffeo, also in Venice) were prosperous merchants engaged in trade with the Orient. They left for Asia in 1255 and reached China in 1266, reaching Khanbaliq or Cambaluc (Beijing). They returned to China as envoys of Kublai Khan with a letter to the Pope requesting that people send in their enlightened rule taught to inform Mongolians about their way of life.
Route followed [edit]

* Departure from Venice.
* Rodeo in Greece to reach Constantinople.
* Crossing the Black Sea and Azov.
* Transit of the Eurasian steppes, crossed the Volga and the Caspian Sea around the north to the Aral Sea and the city of Bukhara.
* Cross the mountains and deserts of Central Asia via the Silk Road to reach Beijing.

The second trip [edit]

Matthew and Nicholas Pole departed on a second trip, the pope's response to Kublai Khan in 1271. This time Nicholas took his son Marco, who soon won the favor of Kublai Khan, making his adviser. Shortly after Marco became envoy of the Khan, who would give various destinations throughout the years. In his seventeen years of service to the Khan, Marco Polo, came to know the vast regions of China and the many achievements of Chinese civilization, many of which were more advanced than contemporary Europeans.

When an embassy from the king of Persia, Kublai Khan asked a princess for the king, the Polo accompany it, deciding to return to Venice.
Route followed [edit]

* Departure from Venice.
* Land at Acre.
* Run through the Fertile Crescent until reaching Tabriz.
* Get to the imperial capital in Beijing
* Go through China to reach Pagan, in Burma.
* Back to Beijing, where he began the return trip.
* Run to the south to Yangzhou.
* Embarking on Zaitun.
* Rodeo of the coast of southern China, Indochina, Malaya and Sumatra.
* Cross the Bay of Bengal to Ceylon and follows the coast of India to the Kathiawar Peninsula.
* Final landing at Hormuz and again back to Tabriz.
* Crosses the Caucasus and embark again in Trabzon.
* Recal again in Constantinople and finally returns to Venice.

lunes, 25 de enero de 2010

The sistem of regaty

The two traditional irrigation systems currently in place still come from the Muslim period, in addition to water pipes or ditches for the water flowing from rivers or springs, using the unevenness of the ground. The use of river water used the weirs or dams, and alquezares or cuts.

To take water from wells, springs, streams, or rivers were used various means: the pulley, the horizontal hand around the crank and wheel trucks.

From the tenth century are mushrooming all over the geography of al-Andalus the waterwheels driven by water power "Naura. were used for raising water, the management of textile mills and paper manufacturing.

In the vegetable gardens and orchards were also used forklift wheels called "dawlab" name of Persian origin. The term "Saniya" the treadmill was used for blood, already known by the Romans and also broadcast on al-Andalus by the Arabs. He claims it was the Syrians who brought it already in the thirteenth century. Ar-Razi tells of the Segura irrigation system, much like the Nile in Egypt.

To capture groundwater wells were used and, perhaps most known and relevant water pipes in the Arab world, the famous Qana that is basically in some underground tunnels, drilled by applying techniques of oriental origin, which is driven by well water from a mother who captures from the groundwater and is fitted with a vent or ventilation shafts each distance.

It is a technique known since ancient times in al-Andalus, introduced by the Umayyads, and abundant in many parts of Mallorca, Madrid and Alicante, where architects and experts were using the wizards (Arabic zuharï) to detect the location of the groundwater.

Making possible the use of wells to extract water from wells fuesustituir the water power for the beasts of burden, enabling operate the machine without the existence of water.

It was not easy to build the wheel and pinion mechanism to convert the horizontal movement in a vertical twist. The carpenters of al-Andalus two wheels built with wood of different hardness so that the weakest act as mechanical fuse and accidents could be easily replaced.

For the distribution of irrigation water was developed elaborate and extensive networks of irrigation ditches that successively subdivided into smaller pipes in a tree structure to reach each of the lots that watered and reach large areas of intensive irrigation.

If the recruitment was done in a stream, sometimes it was necessary to resort to the weir for diversion into the canal, ditch or wheel which was responsible for driving or pumping water.

Among agricultural techniques that expose the Andalusi agronomists should be noted that intended to ensure that water runs in a land to enable irrigation. The technique is to have the floor with a nod of agreement with a certain gap ratio, this ratio was calculated using a tool for that purpose.

The classification of water being made by Muslim writers is based on a criterion of source from which identifies four different groups: rain, rivers, wells and fountains, each with their properties and effects on crops. Over watering the fruit trees and plants in general should take into account a range of general and specific principles for each case.

The key to increasing the irrigated area was the best use of existing resources, and in this line, in areas where resources were scarce, the waters of the baths were then reused for irrigation. Such is the case of the baths in Alhama de Murcia, that by the middle of the thirteenth century served to irrigate the farm lands. Practice that has continued into the twentieth century.

Origenétnico As to the institutions of water distribution in irrigation systems, we note that the area of al-Andalus Xarq (Spanish southeast) also has Berber roots in some cases.

The Mosque